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HPLC Analysis of Aldehydes and Ketones in Air Samples

HPLC Analysis of Aldehydes and Ketones in Air Samples

Aldehydes and ketones from industrial and automotive emission can pollute the environment.  Also, as a lot of these compounds are carcinogens, several US EPA and state methods have been developed for their analysis in air and drinking water.  This application note describes a HPLC method to analyze 15 commonly analyzed aldehydes and ketones in environmental air and auto exhaust.  Prior to analysis, aldehydes and ketones are converted to hydrazone derivatives when the air sample passes through a solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge composed of silica gel coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH).  Then, the aldehyde/ketone DNPH derivatives are eluted from the SPE cartridge and analyzed by HPLC separation using a Uitisil® XB-C18 column and UV detection at 360 nm.  

Smart Valve Module to Enhance Laboratory Automation

Smart Valve Module to Enhance Laboratory Automation

3D cell culture systems, such as organ-on-chip,  aim to revolutionize the drug development process. The 3D structure replicates the natural environment of cells. For example in human body, cells are supplied with nutrients and oxygen through the heart and blood vessels. Thus, in 3D cell culture models, this function can be performed by a microfluidics system.  In vitro experiments with 3D cell culture models can better simulate the body environment than conventional 2D cell culture experiments, thus help to accelerate drug development process and reduce cost and animal experiments as well.  Miniature valve from MEMETIS offers a variety of advantages in this cell culture application and other diagnostics applications, such as point-of-care and mobile health care. 

Introduction of FTIR, ATR, Fiber Optics, and ATR Probes in Spectroscopy and Associated Designs - Part II

Introduction of FTIR, ATR, Fiber Optics, and ATR Probes in Spectroscopy and Associated Designs - Part II

This article describes the basic principles of FTIR, Attenuated Total Reflection-Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-IR), Fiber Optical Spectroscopy techniques and their applications in in-line reaction monitor and process control.  The design and selection of fiber coupler, fiber optical cable and fiber probe are briefly introduced.  This is the Part II. 

Introduction of FTIR, ATR, Fiber Optics, and ATR Probes in Spectroscopy and Associated Designs - Part I

Introduction of FTIR, ATR, Fiber Optics, and ATR Probes in Spectroscopy and Associated Designs - Part I

This article describes the basic principles of FTIR, Attenuated Total Reflection-Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-IR), Fiber Optical Spectroscopy techniques and their applications in in-line reaction monitor and process control.  The design and selection of fiber coupler, fiber optical cable and fiber probe are briefly introduced.  This is the Part I. 

Counting Blood Cells with Dino-Lite Microscopes

Counting Blood Cells with Dino-Lite Microscopes

Dino-Lite handheld models combined with a stand facilitate the laboratory capability to capture images and videos.  Setup A provides precise XYZ movements when using a proper combination of coaxial lighting.   Both the AM73515MT8A and BL-CDW back light offer dark field and bright field options which allow users to easily identify bacteria, protozoans, and distinguish between red and white blood cells.  The AM73515MT8A also offers 5MP high resolution and a magnification range of 700x-950X.  Using the full-screen 2X Digital Zoom feature found in the free imaging software at 950X mag with 5MP resolution, users can achieve 1900X magnification with 1.3MP resolution.  Three setup combinations are recommended:   

Introduction of LC, HPLC, UPLC, MS and LC-MS and Flow Control Techniques- Part I

Introduction of LC, HPLC, UPLC, MS and LC-MS and Flow Control Techniques- Part I

This article describes the basic principles of Liquid Chromatography (LC), High performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Ultra performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC), Mass spectrometry (MS), Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques in analytical chemistry and their applications. The role of HPLC columns and sample injection are briefly introduced.  This is part I of this article. 

Introduction of LC, HPLC, UPLC, MS and LC-MS and Flow Control Techniques- Part II

Introduction of LC, HPLC, UPLC, MS and LC-MS and Flow Control Techniques- Part II

This article describes the basic principles of Liquid Chromatography (LC), High performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Ultra performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC), Mass spectrometry (MS), Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques in analytical chemistry and their applications. The role of HPLC columns and sample injection are briefly introduced.  This is part II of this article.

Innovative NIRaman Combi Fiber Probe

Innovative NIRaman Combi Fiber Probe

Art Photonics introduces a new combined fiber optic probe (NIRaman) enabling simultaneous real time measurements at the same point with Near-infrared spectroscopy (1000-2500nm) and Raman spectroscopy  (785 – 1000nm) methods.    The wavelength ranges of both channels are separated but both channels can work simultaneously.   NIRaman Combi fiber probe, which not only significantly expands the capabilities of the well-known FlexiSpec® product line, but also opens up new opportunities for the development of various Combi-probes. Raman and NIR spectra contain qualitative and quantitative information on the chemical composition and physical properties of the substance. 

Piezoelectric Micropumps and Their Biomedical Applications

Piezoelectric Micropumps and Their Biomedical Applications

Small, lightweight and powerful, the piezoelectric micropumps are perfect for portable, battery-operated medical devices and diagnostic applications. Meanwhile, excellent gas pumping capability renders the pump opportunities in the environmental and industrial hygiene applications.  This micropump can be used to circulate media or continuously supply fresh media for cell culturing or tissue engineering with greatly reduced risk of contamination over time. The continuously adjustable flow rates are able to actively optimize the media conditions, and the virtually steady flow can minimize the perturbation to cells. 

Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (LC-MS) Flow Splitting and Sample Injection

Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (LC-MS) Flow Splitting and Sample Injection

Capillary Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has been extensively used in life science for the analysis of peptides and proteins, especially in proteomics area.  Because it shows higher resolution and sensitivity over conventional LC.  Capillary LC utilizes columns with smaller inner diameters (< 0.5 mm) than conventional LC and flow rates from some few µL /min down to the nL/min or even pL/min range.   Smaller ID columns produce higher and narrower chromatographic peaks for a fixed amount of injected material as the same amount of analyte elutes at a higher concentration as well as a better separation efficiency.  The peak height is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area of the column.  Meanwhile the lower solvent flow rate provides higher ionization and sampling efficiency allowing a higher percentage of analytes in the solution phase to be transmitted to the MS detector.  Combination of these effects provide better detection limit for mass spectrometry.  

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